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Many of us, if not closely watching the main events in the world of sports and its such varieties as athletics, then at least watch the Olympic Games and know who is the fastest man in the world. We think it makes no sense to explain to a wide audience what a sporting event like the sprint is. But still recall the definition of this sport. Sprint is a race for short distances (100, 200, 400 meters). He belongs to one of the disciplines of athletics. Competitions in this discipline are held both among men and among women.
Speed has always attracted man. In ancient times, in many respects it depended on the speed of a hunter’s run whether he would manage to catch up with the prey and, accordingly, feed his community. In archaic times, speed was also important. Then there was no carrier pigeons, no media. And often, many political and strategic moments depended on the speed with which the messenger will carry the message to another policy. In addition, the war was also an important quality.
Athletics – one of the first types of sports in the history of mankind.
Today we will examine the features of the sprint as a sport and features of the training process in it: what phases there are in the training of sprinters, how they cycle the load, what exercises they perform.
On the essence of strength and endurance
The special features of sprint (otherwise it is called sprint) consist primarily in the fact that it cannot be attributed to endurance training, since this is a short-term maximum muscle effort, and endurance is an even work of the muscles for a rather long period of time. The above-described effort can rather be attributed to the effort contributing to the development of explosive power. Let’s see exactly in all definitions to understand each other correctly.
Explosive power, if to speak strictly scientific language, is the ability of the muscles to create the most powerful force in the shortest period of time, that is, it is about reaching 100% of the limit of possibilities. From this definition, such a simple conclusion suggests itself that the training of sprinters will be enormously different from the training of marathoners. They will be as close as possible to strength or near-body training.
Explosive power – what it is and how to develop it
What is the essence of any system of strength training, whether it is training absolute strength, relative, moderate? This is a combination of those or other actions that lead to the fact that the maximum power capabilities of an athlete increase, that is, he gets the opportunity to create an even greater effort per unit of time. It seems that everything is clear. And, actually, how to move this very maximum?
There are quite a few methods of training in modern sports practice. We think it makes no sense to list them all. It is enough to identify the basic principles of strength training, which intersect with many recognized sports methodologists.
- The potential of your maximum effort (whether it is a result in a bench press, meters per second, or the force of an impact) depends directly on your nerve conduction. What it is? Nervous conduction, in simple and understandable language, is the “well-adjusted” connection between your muscles and your nervous system. The better it is, the more powerful effort you can send to the muscles with the help of the central nervous system. In addition, nerve conduction is, roughly speaking, the “performance” of the head. How can you work to improve it?
There are quite a large number of ways, let’s stop on the most accessible for the majority of students.
- Combine static and dynamic phases of work. Statics is a work in a slow mode or a job to hold a certain position. For example, the plank exercise is pure static. Dynamics is, on the contrary, work in the speed mode, where the emphasis is on creating the maximum power effort. In the first case, predominantly slow muscle fibers are worked out, in the second – predominantly fast ones. We will need both those and others for a well-coordinated work.
- Perform a large amount of basic exercises in training with sufficient intensity, but never reach 100%. Intensity can be understood as the “limit” of an effort. In the case of work on explosive power, it will be more important to create many high-quality nerve impulses with a capacity of 70-80% than a few with a capacity of 95-100%. Remember that our body is extremely lazy. And to start the necessary adaptive processes, it is necessary to be under a certain load for quite a long time. Moreover, it is important to keep your nervous system in good shape all the time. Work it for the long term.
- Remember one important principle: 500 g of muscles will always do a lot more work than 300 g of muscles. Of course, you are not obliged to swing up to the level of Mr. Olympia, but must have a minimum reserve for the working “meat” in the target muscle groups involved in the movement. Almost all sprinters have good muscles. In this they differ from the same marathoners.
Visually how sprinters train
As in any sport, the technique of doing the exercise is very important in the sprint races. We can say that the technique of execution plays a key role in the effectiveness of an exercise. What are these exercises? How do sprinters train at all? The answer to the question, what are the exercises in the sprinter’s arsenal, you will find below.
The main exercises in the arsenal of the sprinter are the following:
- We start with a warm-up. Get used to the fact that this is also a kind of exercise. The optimal duration is about 10-15 minutes. What will be the warm-up? About 7 minutes jog. Then we carry out the general joint warm-up (as taught in physical education classes).
- Where to begin? Start by running a distance of 70-100 m. This is the first serious exercise on your way. Remember that technology is paramount! Intensity is medium. Not extreme. The main essence of this exercise is to work out the perfect technique for doing the exercise.
- Further specific exercises will go. They are necessary for the correction of your running technique. Run in different styles (with a high raising of the thigh, a mincing stroke, with throwing of the leg, jump steps) at a distance of about 30-40 meters. Increase the intensity gradually.
- Do not forget about the need to do stretching. After all, the prevention of serious injuries and your mobility in general depends on the flexibility of your muscles and your ligaments. And this will directly affect the technique of running, and your final speed, because the correct technique of running makes the most use of as many levers as possible.
In conclusion, we would like to wish our readers perseverance, health, and consistency in following their goals. Be true to the sport, but do it not mindlessly, with a hot head, but as a strategist – carefully planning every step. You have one health, and you should not experiment with it. Have a sense of proportion, but be able to work steadily and constantly in accordance with this measure!